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Biodegradation of water-accommodated aromatic oil compounds in Arctic seawater at 0 °C

New publication by Ana Gomes, Jan H. Christensen, Friederike Gründger, Kasper Urup Kjeldsen, Søren Rysgaard, Leendert Vergeynst


Oil spills in Arctic marine environments are expected to increase concurrently with the expansion of shipping routes and petroleum exploitation into previously inaccessible ice-dominated regions. Most research on oil biodegradation focusses on the bulk oil, but the fate of the water-accommodated fraction (WAF), mainly composed of toxic aromatic compounds, is largely underexplored. To evaluate the bacterial degradation capacity of such dissolved aromatics in Greenlandic seawater, microcosms consisting of 0 °C seawater polluted with WAF were investigated over a 3-month period. With a half-life (t1/2) of 26 days, m-xylene was the fastest degraded compound, as measured by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Substantial slower degradation was observed for ethylbenzene, naphthalenes, phenanthrene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene and fluorenes with t1/2 of 40–105 days. Colwellia, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, was the main potential degrader of m-xylene. This genus occupied up to 47 % of the bacterial community until day 10 in the microcosms. Cycloclasticus and Zhongshania aliphaticivorans, potentially utilizing one-to three-ringed aromatics, replaced Colwellia between day 10 and 96 and occupied up to 6 % and 23 % of the community, respectively. Although most of the WAF can ultimately be eliminated in microcosms, our results suggest that the restoration of an oil-impacted Arctic environment may be slow as most analysed compounds had t1/2 of over 2–3 months and the detrimental effects of a spill towards the marine ecosystem likely persist during this time.